Showing posts from August, 2012


What is Chikungunya Fever?

Chikungunya fever is caused by a virus and is transmitted by bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito which bites during the day. The symptoms of the disease are similar to dengue fever. In some patients it can cause severe, occasionally persistent, joint pain (arthritis), as well as fever and rash.

Symptoms of Chikungunya Fever

The symptoms of chikungunya fever generally start with fever 2-4 days after bite of an infected mosquito. The symptoms of chikungunya fever are:

Rapid onset of joint pains (which is severe, crippling migrating, polyarticular arthritis) and it may or may not be associated with-

• Muscle pain

• High grade fever

• Conjunctivitis

• Rash

The infection is rarely life-threatening and majority of the patients recover in a few days. But it can cause substantial morbidity such as prolonged fatigue lasting several weeks, pain in joints for months or years. The prolonged joint pain seen in chikungunya fever is usually not observed in dengue and hemorrhag…


What is Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is a viral infection that can inflame and damage the liver. Unlike other forms of hepatitis, hepatitis A is usually mild and does not last long. Usually spread in contaminated food or water, hepatitis A also can be passed during sexual practices that involve the anus.

In rare cases, hepatitis A can be spread by contact with the blood of a person who has the infection, for instance, when intravenous drug users share needles.

Symptoms of Hepatitis A

If the infection is mild, there may not be any symptoms, especially in a child. When symptoms appear, they can include:

• Tiredness

• Loss of appetite

• Fever

• Nausea

• Tenderness in the stomach area

• Dark, tea-colored urine

• Yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice)

Treatment of Hepatitis A

There are no drugs to treat hepatitis A. Doctors generally recommend getting bed rest, eating well-balanced meals, drinking plenty of fluids and avoiding alcoholic beverages. It is also essential to avoid medications …

What is Cold and flu

What is Cold and flu?

Sneezing, scratchy throat, runny nose—everyone knows the first signs of a cold, probably the most common illness known.

Although the common cold is usually mild, with symptoms lasting 1 to 2 weeks, it is a leading cause of doctor visits and missed days from school and work.

Symptoms of Cold and flu

Symptoms of the common cold usually begin 2 to 3 days after infection and often include:

• Mucus buildup in your nose

• Difficulty breathing through your nose

• Swelling of your sinuses

• Sneezing

• Sore throat

• Cough

• Headache

Fever is usually slight but can climb to 102 degrees Fahrenheit in infants and young children. Cold symptoms can last from 2 to 14 days, but like most people, you’ll probably recover in a week. If symptoms recur often or last much longer than 2 weeks, you might have an allergy rather than a cold.

Treatment of Cold and flu

There is no cure for the common cold, but you can get relief from your cold symptoms by:

• Resting in bed.

• Drinking plen…


What is Diarrhea?

Diarrhea is more frequent and more liquid bowel movements than normal. Diarrhea often is caused by an infection with bacteria, viruses or a parasite. Bacteria cause diarrhea either by invading the intestine or by producing a toxin that makes the intestine secrete more water. When the diarrhea is caused by food contaminated with bacteria or parasites, people often refer to this as food poisoning.

Symptoms of Diarrhea

People with diarrhea usually have loose, watery stools. Less commonly, people pass frequent, small amounts of loose stool with mucous and blood. Other symptoms can include:

• Abdominal pain and cramping

• Vomiting

• Fever

• Chills

• Bloody stools

• Lack of bowel control

Frequent vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dehydration (abnormally low levels of body water) if too much fluid is lost from the body. Signs of dehydration include:

• Dry mouth

• Thirst

• Dry eyes

• Infrequent urination

Treatment of Diarrhea

• When symptoms start, try to rest more and swit…


1. Malaria

What is Malaria?

Malaria is an infection caused by single-celled parasites that enter the blood through the bite of an Anopheles mosquito.

Symptoms of Malaria

Symptoms of malaria can begin as early as six to eight days after a bite by an infected mosquito. They include:

• High fever (up to 105 degrees Fahrenheit) with shaking chills

• Profuse sweating when the fever suddenly drops

• Fatigue

• Headache

• Muscle aches

• Abdominal discomfort

• Nausea, vomiting

• Feeling faint when you stand up or sit up quickly

Treatment of Malaria

Malaria is treated with antimalarial drugs and measures to control symptoms, including medications to control fever, antiseizure medications when needed, fluids and electrolytes. The type of medications that are used to treat malaria depends on the severity of the disease and the likelihood of chloroquine resistance.

The drugs most commonly used include chloroquine, quinidine (Cardioquin, Quinaglute Dura-Tabs, Quinidex Extentabs, Quin-Release), ato…


A mental disorder characterized by severely abnormal development of social interaction and of verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Affected people may adhere to inflexible, nonfunctional rituals or routines. They may become upset with even trivial changes in their environment. They often have a limited range of interests but may become preoccupied with a narrow range of subjects or activities. They appear unable to understand others' feelings and often have poor eye contact with others. Unpredictable mood swings may occur. Many demonstrate stereotypical motor mannerisms such as hand or finger flapping, body rocking, or dipping. The disorder is probably caused by organically based central nervous system dysfunction, especially in the ability to process social or emotional information or language.


Gastroesophageal Reflux:

It is usually caused due to mucosal damage caused by acid of the stomach which comes up from the stomach to the esophagus.

Regurgitation of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus, possibly into the pharynx where they can be aspirated between the vocal cords and down into the trachea; symptoms of burning pain and acid taste result; pulmonary complications of aspiration depend on the amount, content, and acidity of the aspirate.

Anatomy of Human Brain


Female Reproductive System